Recreational water includes any water that people come into contact with when enjoying water activities such as swimming and kayaking. Water can be contaminated by toxic algae, viruses and bacteria. This can lead to illness if people have contact with the contaminated water.

Recreational water can be contaminated with toxins, viruses and bacteria:

  • Toxins are produced by toxic algae (also known as blue-green algae and cyanobacteria), which are naturally found in fresh water lakes and rivers, usually in low concentrations. However, when conditions are favourable, the algae can multiply quickly and form blooms, mats or surface scum.
  • Faecal pathogens (such as viruses and bacteria) can contaminate recreational water. Human sewage and animal manure are the main sources of faecal contamination in recreational waters.

The water quality at more than 80 popular Bay of Plenty coastal, river and lake recreation sites are monitored by the Bay of Plenty Regional Council from October to March each year. National data is collected from all the local councils and is available on the Land, Air, Water, Aotearoa website. As monitoring only happens in specific places at certain times of the year, it is important for members of the public to know how to recognise signs of water contamination, so that we can keep our community safe together.

Recommendations for safe use of recreational water

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1)   Do not swim in lakes/rivers/streams/estuaries in the 48 hours after heavy or prolonged rain.

Why: Risk of contamination with animal faeces from rural or urban run-off + sewer overflows. Rainfall can wash livestock faecal matter from farmland into waterways.

Potential consequences: Bacterial contamination of water can lead to infections of the gastrointestinal tract (tummy bugs) and skin/eye/ear infections and breathing difficulties.


2)   Avoid contact with water if the river bed or rocks are covered in leathery mats of black/brown algae and do not eat shellfish from there.

Why: This is a sign of potentially toxic algae

Potential consequences: Toxic algae are capable of producing toxins that are harmful to humans and animals, whether swallowed or exposed to skin. This can lead to fever, headaches, skin rashes, stomach cramps, tingling and numbness around the mouth or face, difficulty swallowing or breathing, dizziness, double vision, and in severe cases paralysis and respiratory failure (can be life threatening).


3)   Avoid contact with water that is murky or has a musty smell and do not eat shellfish from there.

Why: This is a general sign of contaminated water; it could be toxic algae or bacterial contamination.

Potential consequences: The same as 1) and 2)


4)   Avoid swimming near or collecting shellfish where: Pipes/culverts run down to the waterway, sewage or storm water is discharged or there are a lot of houses nearby, farm animals are grazing nearby, there may be industrial pollution, boats may discharge sewage, or near wharves an marinas in general.

Why: These are high risk areas for faecal contamination of the water.

Potential consequences: The same as 1) and 2)


5) Look out for local signage and monitor relevant websites for up-to-date warnings and water quality information.  These include:

Why: The water quality can fluctuate over time, with temporary warnings being put in place

Potential consequences: It is not always possible to place signage at all parts of a river or lake that may be affected, so it is important to check online, in addition to using your own judgement.

Health warnings for recreational water

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View current health warnings for recreational water sites

Toi Te Ora Public Health reviews Regional Council test results for recreational water quality and will issue a health warning should recreational water contact be determined to be a public health risk.

Toxic algae

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Toxic algae, also known as blue-green algae and cyanobacteria, are capable of producing toxins that are harmful to humans and animals, whether swallowed or exposed to skin during swimming, kayaking or water-skiing. Symptoms include fever, headaches, dizziness, skin rashes, stomach cramps and aggravated hay fever and asthma and damage to the nervous system. People are advised not paddle, wade, swim or participate in any other activity that may involve direct contact with the algae or swallowing of lake water.

During the warmer months lakes and rivers can be affected by blooms of blue-green algae which are potentially toxic. To reduce your chance of becoming unwell, it is important to know when it is not safe to have contact with the water. Algal blooms can develop rapidly and unpredictably and can sometimes produce toxins that are harmful for people as well as animals. It is best to avoid contact with the water if it looks discoloured, has an unusual smell, has green or brown particles suspended in it, or if you can see scum or leathery mats of algae on the surface or on the bottom of the waterway. These blooms have the capacity to release toxins into the water which can cause significant ill-health to anyone who has contact with the water. 

Lakes are typically dominated by free-floating algal blooms, while rivers are more prone to algal blooms that grow in mats attached to rocks at the bottom. They can also build up at the shoreline.

Algal mats and scum may also accumulate along the shoreline of lakes or rivers so it’s especially important that parents ensure that children avoid contact with these as they may be toxic. You should seek medical advice from your GP if you become unwell after having contact with the recreational water.

Dogs are also particularly at risk of serious illness if they consume or have contact with toxic algae. They should be kept away from the water if it looks like there may be a bloom. They may also eat algal mats that accumulate in and around rivers.

A health warning is issued by Toi Te Ora Public Health if recreational water monitoring results provided by Regional Councils show a site to have high levels of blue-green algae.

Where there is an algal bloom in a lake, it seems unlikely that there is any risk from eating the flesh of trout but it’s very important to remove the gut and liver and wash in clean water first. Do not take or consume trout that are found already dead. Shellfish and kōura (freshwater crayfish) should not be eaten as would likely present a risk to health.

Examples of algal blooms:

Image credit: Bay of Plenty Regional Council


More information can also be found on our regional council websites:

Contaminated water

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Water contaminated with animal and human faeces can lead to gastrointestinal illnesses (tummy bugs) such as Salmonella, Giardia, Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium. People can also experience cold and flu-like symptoms and skin, eye and ear infections.


48 hour no swim rule of thumb after heavy rain

It’s best to avoid swimming in rivers, streams, lakes, harbour areas and at beaches for at least 48 hours after heavy rain. There is likely to be contamination from rural and urban run-off in waterways after heavy rain. To avoid illnesses such as diarrhoea, vomiting, skin infections or ear infections, follow the rule of thumb of no swimming for at least 48 hours after heavy rain.

Jellyfish stings

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There are many different types of jellyfish in New Zealand; however, treatment of stings is exactly the same regardless of the type of jellyfish involved.

Read about how to treat jellyfish stings here

Seabathers' eruption

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People who get itchy, sore rashes under their swimming costume after swimming at a beach are likely to have been stung by tiny, transparent jellyfish or anemone larvae. The rash is called “seabather’s eruption” and it is the skin’s reaction to the toxin injected by the larvae of jellyfish or anemones. 

This rash is often called “sea lice bites”, but sea lice are actually a parasite of fish and they can produce a rash on uncovered skin. 

Symptoms of seabather’s eruption include pain, burning and itching. The rash appears as red swollen marks on areas of skin that were covered by swimwear.   People can get skin tingling before leaving the sea, and the rash tends to occur after getting out of the water. The rash may not appear until several hours after being in the sea. The rash and itchy can vary from mild to severe lasting up to a week or more. Children and those with a severe reaction can become unwell with headaches, nausea and lethargy for several days.

Warm weather and onshore winds bring tiny jellyfish and anemone larvae close to the shoreline and being so small, they can get trapped unnoticed in swimwear, or in peoples’ hair while swimming. As a swimmer gets out of the sea, water drains from the swimwear and traps the jellyfish between the fabric and the skin, causing the stinging cells to release their toxin.  The toxin can also be released by washing in fresh water and rubbing affected skin with a towel. 
You can treat the rash by washing the affected area with salt water. Fresh water can be used, but sometimes can make the rash worse. Hydrocortisone cream (1%) applied 2-3 times a day over 1-2 weeks is the most useful treatment.  Calamine lotion, antihistamines, and anti-inflammatory medicines such as ibuprofen can also help reduce symptoms.  Ask your pharmacist for advice.

If you are concerned or if symptoms are severe see a doctor or call Healthline for advice on 0800 611 116. Healthline operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week. 

For more information see DermNet NZ.

Sewer overflows

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In built up areas such as Tauranga Harbour there is a possibility of sewage discharge from the reticulated sewage system.  This can lead to contaminated water.  Should this occur, the local authority would advise the public that an unplanned sewer overflow has occurred and remedy the affected area.

For more information about sewer overflows, contact your local council.



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Shellfish are an important food source for many people in New Zealand. Unfortunately, shellfish can be affected by naturally occurring toxins (such as paralytic shellfish poisoning), viruses and bacteria.

Shellfish including freshwater mussels filter out algae from water as a food source, if the algae are toxic, these toxins can accumulate in the shellfish, making them poisonous to eat. Kōura (freshwater crayfish) is safe to eat as long as you remove the gut.

Learn more about shellfish

View current shellfish biotoxin warnings

Swimmers itch

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Swimmers itch, also known as ‘duck itch’ or cercarial dermatitis, is caused by exposure to tiny larvae or cercariae in shallow, warm water and can cause an allergic irritation of the skin.

Symptoms can include an itchy or tingling sensation that develops in to tiny red spots, pimple-like bumps (papules) and occasionally, hives or blisters.

You can reduce the risk of being affected by avoiding shallow areas of water, particularly where there is vegetation and/or evidence of bird life, and washing or showering  with clean water following any contact. Drying yourself off with a towel after swimming can also help.

For more information on swimmers itch, see DermNet NZ.

Swimming, spa and geothermal pools

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Cases of giardia, cryptosporidium, legionellosis and other infections have been attributed to pools both in New Zealand and overseas. Unless swimming, spa and geothermal pools are thoroughly maintained, the water in pools can support the growth of disease-causing organisms. For instance, maintenance of the residual active chlorine level and regular cleaning and regular changing of the water are essential to minimise infections in pool users. For these reasons all pools that are accessed by the public need to be operated and maintained according to best practice. 

The New Zealand Pool Water Quality Standard contains information on the chemical and microbiological levels required to safeguard health, to meet bather aesthetics and to minimise the degradation of pool equipment. Water treatment, water quality criteria and testing frequencies are included, as well as procedures to follow when unexpected events and quality issues arise. 

All swimming, spa and geothermal pool operators are encouraged to operate their pools to the New Zealand Standard for Pool Water Quality 5826:2010 for the protection of public health. The Standard may be purchased, or a copy obtained through most public libraries.

Any questions on the safe operation of pools or to report illness associated with a pool, please contact a health protection officer.



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